The effect of mother's socio-demographic characteristics, hygienic habits and feeding characteristics of the baby on the baby's height and weight: A follow-up study


  • Gulcin Nacar İnönü Üniversitesi, Hemşirelik Fakültesi, Doğum, Kadın Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Hemşireliği Anabilim Dalı, Malatya, Türkiye
  • Fatma Keskin Tore Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Hemşirelik Bölümü, Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye



Mothers, demographic, sanitary , breastfeeding


Aim: The research was carried out to examine the effects of the mother's socio-demographic characteristics, hygienic habits and feeding characteristics of the baby on the baby's height and weight.

Materials and Methods: The research, which was carried out as a follow-up study, was carried out in the puerperal ward of a public hospital in eastern Turkey. The research was completed with 132 postpartum mothers. At the first meeting at the postpartum hospital, the phone numbers of the mothers who agreed to participate in the study were obtained and two follow-ups were made on the 10th day and at the 1st month. The research data were collected with the participant information form created by the researchers. Descriptive statistics (number, percentage, mean, standard deviation), t test, Mann Whitney U test, One-Way ANOVA test and Kruskal Wallis H test were used to evaluate the data.

Results: While the education level of the mother did not affect the baby's height in the 1st month postpartum (p>0.05), it was found that there was a significant difference on the weight (p<0.05). It was determined that the mother's frequency of breastfeeding during the day and the product used in the baby's bath were effective on the baby's weight in the 1st month after birth (p<0.05). It was found that the use of wet wipes in the care of the baby affected the baby's weight and height in the 1st month after birth (p<0.05).

Conclusion: In the study, it was found that the education level of the mother, the frequency of daytime breastfeeding and the product used in the baby's bath affected the baby's weight in the 1st month after birth. In addition, it has been determined that the use of wet wipes in baby care affects the weight and height of the baby in the 1st month after birth.


Gillman MW. The first months of life : a critical period for development. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(6):1587–1589.

Rice F, Thapar A. Early Human Development Estimating the relative contributions of maternal genetic , paternal genetic and intrauterine factors to offspring birth weight and head circumference. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(7):425–432.

Ngure FM, Reid BM, Humphrey JH, Mbuya MN, Pelto G, Stoltzfus RJ. Water, sanitation, and hygiene ( WASH ), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development : making the links. 2014;1308:118–128.

Abebe Z, Haki GD, Baye K. Health extension workers ’ knowledge and knowledge- sharing effectiveness of optimal ınfant and young child feeding are associated with mothers ’ knowledge and child stunting in rural Ethiopia. Food Nutr Bull. 2016;37(3):353–363.

Adhikari D, Khatri RB, Paude YR, Poudyal AK. Factors associated with Underweight among Under-Five children in eastern Nepal : cross-sectional study. Front Public Heal. 2017;5(30):1–9.

Sarma H, Khan JR, Asaduzzaman M, Uddin F, Tarannum S, Hasan M. Factors influencing the prevalence of stunting among children aged below five years in Bangladesh. Food Nutr Bull. 2017;38(3):291–301.

Amugsi DA, Dimbuene ZT, Kimani-murage EW. Socio-demographic factors associated with normal linear growth among pre-school children living in better-off households : A multi-country analysis of nationally representative data. PLoS One. 2020;15(3):1–19.

John JR, Mistry SK, Kebede G, Manohar N, Arora A. Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia : a population- based study using the 2016 demographic and health survey data. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):1–10.

Magnano R, Lio S, Maugeri A, Clara M, Rosa L, Cianci A, et al. The impact of socio-demographic factors on breastfeeding : findings from the “ Mamma & Bambino ” cohort. Medicina,. 2021;57(2):103.

Onah S, Ignatius D, Osuorah C, Ebenebe J, Ezechukwu C. Infant feeding practices and maternal socio-demographic factors that influence practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Nnewi South-East Nigeria : a cross-sectional and analytical study. Int Breastfeed J. 2014;9(1):1–10.

Ba MKD, Mph NTM. Are household disinfectants microbially mediated obesogens? CMAJ. 2018;190(37):1095–1096.

Perin J, Burrowes V, Almeida M, Ahmed S, Haque R, Parvin T, et al. A retrospective case – control study of the relationship between the gut microbiota, enteropathy, and child growth. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(1):520–527.

Marques TM, Wall R, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Ryan CA, Stanton C. Programming infant gut microbiota: influence of dietary and environmental factors. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2010;21(2):149–156.

Vandenplas Y, Carnielli VP, Ksiazyk J, Luna MS, Migacheva N, Mosselmans JM, et al. Factors affecting early-life intestinal microbiota development. Nutrition. 2020;78:110812.

Habibi M, Zahra F, Aguenaou H, Doukkali L. International Journal of Pediatrics and The impact of maternal socio-demographic characteristics on breastfeeding knowledge and practices : An experience from. Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2018;5(2):39–48.

Woon FC, Chin YS, Ismail IH, Chan YM, Batterham M, Hamzah A, et al. Contribution of early nutrition on the development of malnutrition and allergic diseases in the first year of life : a study protocol for the Mother and Infant Cohort Study ( MICOS ). BMC Pediatr. 2018;18(1):1–9.

Fadare O, Id MA, Mavrotas G, Akerele D, Ogunniyi A. Mother ’ s nutrition-related knowledge and child nutrition outcomes : Empirical evidence from Nigeria. PloS one. 2019;14(2):1–17.

WHO. Infant and young child feeding [Internet]. WHO. 2021. Available from:

Kajale NA, Chiplonkar SA, Khadilkar V, Khadilkar A V. Effect of breastfeeding practices and maternal nutrition on baby’s weight gain during first 6 months. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2016;66(1):335–339.

WHO. Breastfeeding [Internet]. WHO. 2022. Available from:

Bililign N, M L, M A. A review of low birth weight in Ethiopia : socio-demographic and obstetric imedpub journals a review of low birth weight in Ethiopia : Socio-Demographic and Obstetric Risk Factors Abstract. Glob J Res Rev. 2018;5(1):4.

Borah M, Agarwalla R. Maternal and socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight (LBW): A community-based study in a rural block of Assam. J Postgrad Med. 2016;62(3):178.

Gebremeskel SG, Gebru TT, Gebrehiwot BG, Meles HN, Tafere BB, Gebreslassie GW, et al. Early initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers of aged less than 12 months children in rural eastern zone, Tigray, Ethiopia: Cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):1–6.

Chimoriya R, Scott JA, John JR, Bhole S, Hayen A, Kolt GS, et al. Determinants of full breastfeeding at 6 months and any breastfeeding at 12 and 24 months among women in sydney: Findings from the hshk birth cohort study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(15):1–14.

Javid N, Pu C. Maternal stature, maternal education and child growth in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study. AIMS Public Heal. 2020;7(2):380–392.

Dagne AH, Anteneh KT, Badi MB, Adhanu HH, Ahunie MA, Tebeje HD, et al. Appropriate complementary feeding practice and associated factors among mothers having children aged 6-24 months in Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia, 2016. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):1–6.

Andriani RAD, Laili U. The relationship between frequency of breastfeeding and newborn weight loss. Siklus J Res Midwifery Politek Tegal. 2021;10(1):1–4.

Hassan B, Zakerihamidi M. The correlation between frequency and duration of breastfeeding and the severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2018;31(4):457–463.

Lazzarini R, de Figueiredo Silva Hafner M, Proença CC, Lemes LR, Rodrigues AC, Sobral DV. Analysis of the components and pH of a sample of wet wipers used for the hygiene of newborns and infants. An Bras Dermatol. 2021;96(6):774–776.

Rodriguez KJ, Cunningham C, Foxenberg R, Hoffman D, Vongsa R. The science behind wet wipes for infant skin: Ingredient review, safety, and efficacy. Pediatr Dermatol. 2020;37(3):447–454.

Cornell E, Kwa M, Paller AS, Xu S. Adverse events reported to the Food and Drug Administration from 2004 to 2016 for cosmetics and personal care products marketed to newborns and infants. Pediatr Dermatol. 2018;35(2):225–229.

Nepalia A, Singh A, Pareek S. An overview of the harmful additives and contaminants possibly present in an overview of the harmful additives and contaminants possibly present in baby cosmetic products. Int J Chem Sci,. 2017;15(April):127.

Reis R. Bebek ve çocuklara yönelik kozmetik ürünlerin güvenliliği. Hacettepe Univ J Fac Pharm. 2021;41(2):117–132.



How to Cite

Nacar, G., & Keskin Tore, F. (2023). The effect of mother’s socio-demographic characteristics, hygienic habits and feeding characteristics of the baby on the baby’s height and weight: A follow-up study. Journal of Social and Analytical Health, 3(1), 40–48.