Comparison of the efficacy of the various antioxidants against lung damage caused by sulfur mustard and the exposition of their effects on serum parameters


  • Fatih Kalkan Gülhane Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Ankara, Türkiye
  • Turgut Topal Emekli Öğretim Üyesi



Sulphur mustard, oxidative stress, antioxidants, acute toxicity


Aim: In our research on new and previously used agents it is intended to reach proposals to protect and reduce toxic effects of sulfur mustard against lungs. Material-Methods: Approximately 60 SD male rats in the same age and weight were used in our research. One of sulfur mustard group agent the 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) known as half mustard was used to form the model. CEES in 1 mg / kg dose were applied by the intratracheal way. The study is initiated after creating the groups from experimental animals, sham, control (sulfur mustard), sulfur mustard+N-acetylcysteine, sulfur mustard+lipoic acid, sulfur mustard+mesna and the sulfur mustard+amifostine. After sulfur mustard toxicity model is created, in 15 minutes the therapeutic agents were begun to apply. Treatment was administered for 3 days. After this time the rats were surgically opened under anesthesia applying sternotomy and blood and lung tissue samples were taken for the purpose of serum analysis. Because of histopathological evaluation purposes this tissues are taken into Eppendorfs for 10% formalin, biochemical and ELISA assays and stored at -80°C and appropriate conditions in the refrigerator until the analysis process. Result: Looking at the results of the mortality rate, 60% mortality rate observed in pathological control (SM) group, was observed statistically significant to decrease only in Amifostine and lipoic acid group (respectively viii 10 % and 20% ) In the histopathological evaluation; in routine H & E-stained tissue sections was made a general histopathological evaluation and scoring especially with pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and inflammation evaluations. In the evaluation, it was observed that more intense edema, hemorrhage and inflammation in pathological control group (SM) compared to sham group, decreased significantly only in the group treated with Amifostine and lipoic acid. It was not observed any significant difference between groups comparing in Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels showing the level of lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress, comparing NOx levels indicating the nitrostatif stress level, the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx levels indicating antioxidant defense level and neopiter levels accepted as one of inflammation criteria. Conclusion: As a result, in the light of the data obtained, it needs to be tested in a more appropriate model, whether serum MDA, SOD, GPx, NOx, as Neopterin oxido- nitrosative , antioxidant parameters would be used for condition detection and monitoring in acute lung toxicity. Besides new antioxidants such as Amifostine and α-lipoic acid has been shown to have promising hope in treatment of acute lung toxicity caused by sulfur mustard.


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How to Cite

Kalkan, F., & Topal, T. (2023). Comparison of the efficacy of the various antioxidants against lung damage caused by sulfur mustard and the exposition of their effects on serum parameters. Journal of Social and Analytical Health, 3(2), 147–158.